Browse the Constitution Annotated

Fourteenth Amendment 

  • Amdt14.1  Fourteenth Amendment: Overview
  • Amdt14.2  State Action Doctrine
  • Section 1

    All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

    • Amdt14.S1.1 Citizenship Rights
      • Amdt14.S1.1.1 Citizenship Clause
    • Amdt14.S1.2 Privileges or Immunities of Citizens
      • Amdt14.S1.2.1 Privileges or Immunities Clause
        • Amdt14.S1.2.1.1 Privileges or Immunities Clause: Doctrine and Practice
    • Amdt14.S1.3 Due Process and the States
      • Amdt14.S1.3.1 Due Process Clause and Incorporation
        • Amdt14.S1.3.1.1 Due Process Clause and Incorporation: Doctrine and Practice
    • Amdt14.S1.4 Equal Protection Rights
      • Amdt14.S1.4.1 Race-Based Classifications
        • Amdt14.S1.4.1.1  Race-Based Classifications: Overview
        • Amdt14.S1.4.1.2  Race-Based Classifications: Historical Background
        • Amdt14.S1.4.1.3 Doctrine and Practice: Race-Based Classifications
        • Amdt14.S1.4.1.4 Race-Based Classifications: Select Topics for Consideration
      • Amdt14.S1.4.2 Non-Race Based Classifications
        • Amdt14.S1.4.2.1  Non-Race Based Classifications: Overview
        • Amdt14.S1.4.2.2 Other Suspect Classifications: Doctrine and Practice
        • Amdt14.S1.4.2.3 Quasi-Suspect Classifications: Doctrine and Practice
          • Amdt14.S1. Gender Classifications
          • Amdt14.S1.  Classification Against Persons Born out of Wedlock
        • Amdt14.S1.4.2.4 Non-Suspect Classifications: Doctrine and Practice
      • Amdt14.S1.4.3 Equal Protection Fundamental Rights
        • Amdt14.S1.4.3.1  Equal Protection: Overview
        • Amdt14.S1.4.3.2 Equal Protection Fundamental Rights: Doctrine and Practice
        • Amdt14.S1.4.3.3 Voting Rights
        • Amdt14.S1.4.3.4 Voting Rights: Select Topics for Consideration
          • Amdt14.S1. Racial Discrimination in Voting Rights
  • Section 2

    Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

    • Amdt14.S2.1 Apportionment of Representatives
  • Section 3

    No Person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

    • Amdt14.S3.1 Disqualification from Holding Office
  • Section 4

    The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

    • Amdt14.S4.1 Public Debts of the United States
  • Section 5

    The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

    • Amdt14.S5.1 Enforcing the Fourteenth Amendment
      • Amdt14.S5.1.1 Enforcement Clause
        • Amdt14.S5.1.1.1  Enforcement Clause: Overview
        • Amdt14.S5.1.1.2 Enforcement Clause: Doctrine and Practice
          • Amdt14.S5.  Who Congress May Regulate
          • Amdt14.S5. What May Congress Do to Enforce the Fourteenth Amendment
            • Amdt14.S5.  What May Congress Do to Enforce the Fourteenth Amendment: Pre-Modern Doctrine
            • Amdt14.S5.  What May Congress Do to Enforce the Fourteenth Amendment: Modern Doctrine