Browse the Constitution Annotated

Fourth Amendment 

  • The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

  • Amdt4.1  Historical Background
  • Amdt4.2 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment
    • Amdt4.2.1  Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Overview
    • Amdt4.2.2 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Doctrine and Practice
      • Amdt4.2.2.1  Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Early Doctrine
      • Amdt4.2.2.2  Katz and the Adoption of the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test
      • Amdt4.2.2.3  Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Current Doctrine
    • Amdt4.2.3 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Select Topics for Consideration
    • Amdt4.2.4 Unreasonable Seizures of Persons, Houses, Papers, and Effects
      • Amdt4.2.4.1 Unreasonable Seizures of Persons, Houses, Papers, and Effects: Doctrine and Practice
  • Amdt4.3 Probable Cause and the Warrant Requirement
    • Amdt4.3.1 Probable Cause
      • Amdt4.3.1.1  Probable Cause: Overview
      • Amdt4.3.1.2  Probable Cause: Doctrine and Practice
      • Amdt4.3.1.3 Probable Cause: Select Topics for Consideration
    • Amdt4.3.2 The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure
      • Amdt4.3.2.1  The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Overview
      • Amdt4.3.2.2 The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Doctrine and Practice
  • Amdt4.4 Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement
    • Amdt4.4.1  Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement: Overview
    • Amdt4.4.2  Consent Searches
    • Amdt4.4.3 Warrantless Searches Dependent on Probable Cause
      • Amdt4.4.3.1  Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine
      • Amdt4.4.3.2 Vehicle Searches
        • Amdt4.4.3.2.1  Vehicle Searches: Overview
        • Amdt4.4.3.2.2 Vehicle Searches: Select Topics for Consideration
      • Amdt4.4.3.3  Plain View Searches
    • Amdt4.4.4 Warrantless Searches Not Dependent on Probable Cause
      • Amdt4.4.4.1 Terry Stop and Frisks
        • Amdt4.4.4.1.1  Terry Stop and Frisks: Doctrine and Practice
        • Amdt4.4.4.1.2 Terry Stop and Frisks: Select Topics for Consideration
    • Amdt4.4.5 Special Needs Doctrine
  • Amdt4.5 Exclusionary Rule
    • Amdt4.5.1  Exclusionary Rule: Overview
    • Amdt4.5.2 Exclusionary Rule: Doctrine and Practice