Browse the Constitution Annotated

Article I 

    Section 8

    • Clause 18
    • To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

      • ArtI.S8.C18.1  The Necessary and Proper Clause: Overview
      • ArtI.S8.C18.2  The Necessary and Proper Clause: Historical Background
      • ArtI.S8.C18.3 The Necessary and Proper Clause: Doctrine and Practice
        • ArtI.S8.C18.3.1  The Necessary and Proper Clause Doctrine: Early Doctrine and McCulloch v. Maryland
        • ArtI.S8.C18.3.2  The Necessary and Proper Clause Doctrine: Post-McCulloch Nineteenth Century Doctrinal Development
        • ArtI.S8.C18.3.3  The Necessary and Proper Clause Doctrine: Modern Doctrine (Twentieth Century to Present)
        • ArtI.S8.C18.3.4  The Necessary and Proper Clause Doctrine: The Meaning of Proper
      • ArtI.S8.C18.4 Implied Powers of Congress
        • ArtI.S8.C18.4.1 Implied Power of Congress to Conduct Investigations and Oversight
          • ArtI.S8.C18.4.1.1  Implied Power of Congress to Conduct Investigations and Oversight: Historical Background
          • ArtI.S8.C18.4.1.2  Implied Power of Congress to Conduct Investigations and Oversight: Doctrine and Practice
        • ArtI.S8.C18.4.2  Implied Power of Congress Over Immigration