Browse the Constitution Annotated

Article II 

  • Section 2

    • Clause 1
    • The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

      • ArtII.S2.C1.1 Commander in Chief Power
        • ArtII.S2.C1.1.1  Commander in Chief Power: Historical Background
        • ArtII.S2.C1.1.2  Commander in Chief Power: Doctrine and Practice
        • ArtII.S2.C1.1.3 Commander in Chief Power: Select Topics for Consideration
    • Clause 2
    • He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

    • Clause 3
    • The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

      • ArtII.S2.C3.1 Recess Appointments Power
        • ArtII.S2.C3.1.1  Recess Appointments Power: Overview
        • ArtII.S2.C3.1.2 Recess Appointments Power: Doctrine and Practice
        • ArtII.S2.C3.1.3 Recess Appointments Power: Select Topics for Consideration
      • ArtII.S2.C3.2 Implied or Inherent Powers
        • ArtII.S2.C3.2.1  Implied or Inherent Powers: Overview
        • ArtII.S2.C3.2.2 Inherent Foreign Affairs Power
        • ArtII.S2.C3.2.3  Executive Privilege: Overview
        • ArtII.S2.C3.2.4 Presidential Immunity to Criminal and Civil Suits
          • ArtII.S2.C3.2.4.1 Presidential Immunity to Criminal and Civil Suits: Doctrine and Practice
          • ArtII.S2.C3.2.4.2 Presidential Immunity to Criminal and Civil Suits: Select Topics for Consideration