Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
In Epperson v. Arkansas,1 the Court struck down a state statute that made it unlawful for any teacher in any state-supported educational institution
to teach the theory or doctrine that mankind ascended or descended from a lower order of animals, or
to adopt or use in any such institution a textbook that teaches this theory. Agreeing that control of the curriculum of the public schools was largely in the control of local officials, the Court nonetheless held that the motivation of the statute was a fundamentalist belief in the literal reading of the Book of Genesis and that this motivation and result required the voiding of the law.
The law’s effort was confined to an attempt to blot out a particular theory because of its supposed conflict with the Biblical account, literally read. Plainly, the law is contrary to the mandate of the First . . . Amendment to the Constitution.2
Similarly invalidated as having the improper purpose of advancing religion was a Louisiana statute mandating balanced treatment of
evolution-science in the public schools.
The preeminent purpose of the Louisiana legislature, the Court found in Edwards v. Aguillard,
was clearly to advance the religious viewpoint that a supernatural being created humankind.3 The Court viewed as a
sham the stated purpose of protecting academic freedom, and concluded instead that the legislature’s purpose was to narrow the science curriculum in order to discredit evolution
by counterbalancing its teaching at every turn with the teaching of creation science.4