In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
The Amendment governs only courts that sit under the authority of the United States, 1 including courts in the territories 2 and the District of Columbia, 3 and does not apply generally to state courts. 4 But when a state court is enforcing a federally created right, of which the right to trial by jury is a substantial part, the state may not eliminate trial by jury as to one or more elements. 5 Ordinarily, a federal court enforcing a state-created right will follow its own rules with regard to the allocation of functions between judge and jury, a rule the Court based on the
interests of the federal court system, eschewing reliance on the Seventh Amendment but noting its influence. 6 Where the
interests of the state and federal systems can be reconciled, however, a court should endeavor to implement the rules of the state courts. 7