Article III, Section 2, Clause 1:
The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
Even when Article III constitutional standing rules have been satisfied, the Court has held that principles of prudence may counsel the judiciary to refuse to adjudicate some claims.1 The rule is
not meant to be especially demanding,2 and it is clear that the Court feels free to disregard any of these prudential rules when it sees fit.3 Congress is also free to legislate away prudential restraints and confer standing to the extent permitted by Article III.4 The Court has identified three rules as prudential ones,5 only one of which has been a significant factor in the jurisprudence of standing. The first two rules are that the plaintiff's interest, to which she asserts an injury, must come within the
zone of interest arguably protected by the constitutional provision or statute in question6 and that plaintiffs may not air
generalized grievances shared by all or a large class of citizens.7 The important rule concerns the ability of a plaintiff to represent the constitutional rights of third parties not before the court.