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Topic: Commerce
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  • Intro.2 Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition
    Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition The need for a comprehensive treatise on the Constitution was apparent to Congress from early in the 20th century. In 1911, the Senate Manual (a compilation . . .
  • Intro.3 Historical Note on Formation of the Constitution
    Historical Note on Formation of the Constitution In June 1774, the Virginia and Massachusetts assemblies independently proposed an intercolonial meeting of delegates from the several colonies to . . .
  • ArtI.S1.3 Enumerated, Implied, Resulting, and Inherent Powers
    Enumerated, Implied, Resulting, and Inherent Powers Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and . . .
  • ArtI.S1.4.2 The Nature and Scope of Permissible Delegations
    The Nature and Scope of Permissible Delegations Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and . . .
  • ArtI.S1.4.4.2 Delegations to Private Entities
    Delegations to Private Entities Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.4.1 Purpose
    Purpose Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Beginning with the . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C1.2.1 Regulation by Taxation
    Regulation by Taxation Article I, Section 8, Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C1.3.1 Scope of the Power
    Scope of the Power Article I, Section 8, Clause 1: The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.1 Purposes Served by the Grant
    Purposes Served by the Grant Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.2.1 Commerce
    Commerce Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . The etymology of . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.2.2 Among the Several States
    Among the Several States Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.2.3 Regulate
    Regulate Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . We are now . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.2.4 Necessary and Proper Clause
    Necessary and Proper Clause Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.2.5 Federalism Limits on Exercise of Commerce Power
    Federalism Limits on Exercise of Commerce Power Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.3 Illegal Commerce
    Illegal Commerce Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . That . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.4 Interstate Versus Foreign Commerce
    Interstate Versus Foreign Commerce Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.5 Instruments of Commerce
    Instruments of Commerce Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.6.1 Navigation
    Navigation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . In . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.6.2 Hydroelectric Power; Flood Control
    Hydroelectric Power; Flood Control Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.7.2 Federal Regulation of Land Transportation
    Federal Regulation of Land Transportation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.7.4 Federal Protection of Labor in Interstate Rail Transportation
    Federal Protection of Labor in Interstate Rail Transportation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.7.5 Regulation of Other Agents of Carriage and Communications
    Regulation of Other Agents of Carriage and Communications Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.1 The Sherman Act: Sugar Trust Case
    The Sherman Act: Sugar Trust Case Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.2 Sherman Act Revived
    Sherman Act Revived Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . Four . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.3 The Current of Commerce Concept: The Swift Case
    The Current of Commerce Concept: The Swift Case Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.4 The Danbury Hatters Case
    The Danbury Hatters Case Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.5 Stockyards and Grain Futures Acts
    Stockyards and Grain Futures Acts Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.8.6 Securities and Exchange Commission
    Securities and Exchange Commission Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.9 Congressional Regulation of Production and Industrial Relations: Antidepression Legislation
    Congressional Regulation of Production and Industrial Relations: Antidepression Legislation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.1 Foreign Commerce: Jefferson's Embargo
    Foreign Commerce: Jeffersons Embargo Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.2 Foreign Commerce: Protective Tariffs
    Foreign Commerce: Protective Tariffs Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.3 Foreign Commerce: Banned Articles
    Foreign Commerce: Banned Articles Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.4 Interstate Commerce: Power to Prohibit Questioned
    Interstate Commerce: Power to Prohibit Questioned Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.5 Interstate Commerce: National Prohibitions and State Police Power
    Interstate Commerce: National Prohibitions and State Police Power Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.6 The Lottery Case
    The Lottery Case Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . The . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.7 The Darby Case
    The Darby Case Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . In . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.11 The Commerce Clause as a Source of National Police Power
    The Commerce Clause as a Source of National Police Power Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.1 Doctrinal Background
    Doctrinal Background Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . The . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.2 State Taxation and Regulation: The Old Law
    State Taxation and Regulation: The Old Law Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.3.1 General Considerations
    General Considerations Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.3.2 Taxation
    Taxation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . During the 1940s . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.3.3 Regulation
    Regulation Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . The modern . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.2.4 Foreign Commerce and State Powers
    Foreign Commerce and State Powers Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.3.1 The General Issue: Preemption
    The General Issue: Preemption Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.4 Commerce with Indian Tribes
    Commerce with Indian Tribes Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C6.1 See Article I, Section 8, Clause 5
    See Article I, Section 8, Clause 5 Article I, Section 8, Clause 6: The Congress shall have Power . . . To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C7.1.1 Establish
    Establish Article I, Section 8, Clause 7: The Congress shall have Power . . . To establish Post Offices and post Roads; . . . The great question raised in the early days with reference to the postal . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C7.1.2 Power to Protect the Mails
    Power to Protect the Mails Article I, Section 8, Clause 7: The Congress shall have Power . . . To establish Post Offices and post Roads; . . . The postal powers of Congress embrace all measures . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C7.1.5 State Regulations Affecting the Mails
    State Regulations Affecting the Mails Article I, Section 8, Clause 7: The Congress shall have Power . . . To establish Post Offices and post Roads; . . . In determining the extent to which state laws . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C11.1.2 Declaration of War
    Declaration of War Article I, Section 8, Clause 11: The Congress shall have Power . . . To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C18.1.1 Scope and Operation
    Scope and Operation Article I, Section 8, Clause 18: The Congress shall have Power . . . To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C18.1.3 Chartering of Banks
    Chartering of Banks Article I, Section 8, Clause 18: The Congress shall have Power . . . To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C18.1.5 Power to Charter Corporations
    Power to Charter Corporations Article I, Section 8, Clause 18: The Congress shall have Power . . . To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing . . .
  • ArtI.S9.C3.1 Bills of Attainder
    Bills of Attainder Article I, Section 9, Clause 3: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. Bills of attainder . . . are such special acts of the legislature, as inflict capital . . .
  • ArtI.S9.C5.1 Taxes on Exports
    Taxes on Exports Article I, Section 9, Clause 5: No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. The prohibition on excise taxes applies only to the imposition of duties on goods by . . .
  • ArtI.S9.C6.1 The No Preference Clause
    The No Preference Clause Article I, Section 9, Clause 6: No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C1.1 Treaties, Alliances, or Confederations
    Treaties, Alliances, or Confederations Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C1.6.13 Strict Construction and the Police Power
    Strict Construction and the Police Power Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C2.1.1.2 Privilege Taxes
    Privilege Taxes Article I, Section 10, Clause 2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C2.1.1.4 Inspection Laws
    Inspection Laws Article I, Section 10, Clause 2: No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C3.3.3 Consent of Congress
    Consent of Congress Article I, Section 10, Clause 3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C3.3.4 Grants of Franchise to Corporations by Two States
    Grants of Franchise to Corporations by Two States Article I, Section 10, Clause 3: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of . . .
  • ArtII.S1.C2.1 Electoral College
    Electoral College Article II, Section 1, Clause 2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C1.1.3 The Cold War and After: Presidential Power to Use Troops Overseas Without Congressional Authorization
    The Cold War and After: Presidential Power to Use Troops Overseas Without Congressional Authorization Article II, Section 2, Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.2 International Agreements Without Senate Approval
    International Agreements Without Senate Approval Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.4.1 The Myers Case
    The Myers Case Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.4.2 The Humphrey Case
    The Humphrey Case Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he . . .
  • ArtII.S3.2.4 Congressional Implementation of Presidential Policies
    Congressional Implementation of Presidential Policies Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration . . .
  • ArtII.S3.3.7 Preventive Martial Law
    Preventive Martial Law Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall . . .
  • ArtII.S3.5 Presidential Action in the Domain of Congress: The Steel Seizure Case
    Presidential Action in the Domain of Congress: The Steel Seizure Case Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to . . .
  • ArtIII.S1.1.1 Organization of Courts, Tenure, and Compensation of Judges: Overview
    Organization of Courts, Tenure, and Compensation of Judges: Overview Article III, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts . . .
  • ArtIII.S1.3.1.9 Contempt Power in Aid of Administrative Power
    Contempt Power in Aid of Administrative Power Article III, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may . . .
  • ArtIII.S1.3.4 Congressional Limitation of the Injunctive Power
    Congressional Limitation of the Injunctive Power Article III, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.1 Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies
    Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.4.1 Cases Arising Under the Constitution, Laws, and Treaties of the United States
    Cases Arising Under the Constitution, Laws, and Treaties of the United States Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.4.3 Cases of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction
    Cases of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C2.2.2 The Theory Reconsidered
    The Theory Reconsidered Article III, Section 2, Clause 2: In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme Court shall . . .
  • ArtIV.S2.C1.1.1 Origin and Purpose
    Origin and Purpose Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. The primary purpose of this clause, . . .
  • ArtIV.S2.C1.1.3 Citizens of Each State
    Citizens of Each State Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. A question much mooted before . . .
  • ArtIV.S3.C1.1 Doctrine of Equality of States
    Doctrine of Equality of States Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1: New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any . . .
  • ArtVI.C2.1.3 The Operation of the Supremacy Clause
    The Operation of the Supremacy Clause Article VI, Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be . . .
  • ArtVI.C2.1.5 Supremacy Clause Versus the Tenth Amendment
    Supremacy Clause Versus the Tenth Amendment Article VI, Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall . . .
  • Amdt4.2.4.1.1 Seizure of Property
    Seizure of Property Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt5.4.3 Substantive Due Process
    Substantive Due Process Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt5.5.3 Just Compensation
    Just Compensation Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the . . .
  • Amdt5.5.4 When Property is Taken
    When Property is Taken Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt6.4 Place of Trial: Jury of the Vicinage
    Place of Trial: Jury of the Vicinage Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district . . .
  • Amdt10.1.1 Scope and Purpose
    Scope and Purpose Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. The . . .
  • Amdt10.1.2.2 Federal Police Power
    Federal Police Power Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. . . .
  • Amdt10.1.2.3 Federal Regulations Affecting State Activities and Instrumentalities
    Federal Regulations Affecting State Activities and Instrumentalities Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are . . .
  • Amdt11.1.3 Suits Against States
    Suits Against States Eleventh Amendment: The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States . . .
  • Amdt13.S1.1.1 Origin and Purpose
    Origin and Purpose Thirteenth Amendment, Section 1: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.3 Privileges or Immunities
    Privileges or Immunities Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.6.3 Compellable Services
    Compellable Services Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.7.1 Generally
    Generally Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.8.1 Oil and Gas
    Oil and Gas Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.8.2 Protection of Property and Agricultural Crops
    Protection of Property and Agricultural Crops Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.8.3 Water, Fish, and Game
    Water, Fish, and Game Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.14.1 Generally
    Generally Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.14.4 Intangible Personalty
    Intangible Personalty Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
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