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  • Intro.2 Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition
    Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition The need for a comprehensive treatise on the Constitution was apparent to Congress from early in the 20th century. In 1911, the Senate Manual (a compilation . . .
  • Intro.4 Bill of Rights
    Bill of Rights First Through Tenth Amendments On September 12, five days before the Convention adjourned, Mason and Gerry raised the question of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution. Mason . . .
  • ArtI.S2.C1.1 Congressional Districting
    Congressional Districting Article I, Section 2, Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.1 Purposes Served by the Grant
    Purposes Served by the Grant Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes; . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C4.1.4 Rights of Naturalized Persons
    Rights of Naturalized Persons Article I, Section 8, Clause 4: The Congress shall have Power . . . To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies . . .
  • ArtI.S10.C1.6.18 Evaluation of the Clause Today
    Evaluation of the Clause Today Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of . . .
  • ArtII.S1.C2.1 Electoral College
    Electoral College Article II, Section 1, Clause 2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.1.2 Treaties as Law of the Land
    Treaties as Law of the Land Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.1 Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies
    Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of . . .
  • ArtIV.S2.C1.1.1 Origin and Purpose
    Origin and Purpose Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1: The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. The primary purpose of this clause, . . .
  • Amdt1.1.2 Establishment of Religion
    Establishment of Religion First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the . . .
  • Amdt1.2.5 Subsequent Punishment: Clear and Present Danger and Other Tests
    Subsequent Punishment: Clear and Present Danger and Other Tests First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or . . .
  • Amdt1.2.7 Right of Association
    Right of Association First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; . . .
  • Amdt1.2.13 Government Restraint of Content of Expression
    Government Restraint of Content of Expression First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of . . .
  • Amdt1.2.14 Speech Plus – The Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating
    Speech Plus – The Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise . . .
  • Amdt2.1 In General
    In General Second Amendment: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. For over 200 years, . . .
  • Amdt5.4.1 History and Scope
    History and Scope Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the . . .
  • Amdt5.4.3 Substantive Due Process
    Substantive Due Process Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt6.3.2 Impartial Jury
    Impartial Jury Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall . . .
  • Amdt6.8.2.4 Post-Conviction Proceedings
    Post-Conviction Proceedings Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the . . .
  • Amdt8.2 Excessive Fines
    Excessive Fines Eighth Amendment: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. For years the Supreme Court had little to say about . . .
  • Amdt11.1.4 Suits Against State Officials
    Suits Against State Officials Eleventh Amendment: The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.3 Privileges or Immunities
    Privileges or Immunities Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.17 Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process)
    Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process) Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.5.4.6 Burden of Proof and Presumptions
    Burden of Proof and Presumptions Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.6.2.12 Rights of Prisoners
    Rights of Prisoners Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.7.1.1 State Action
    State Action Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.7.1.2 Person
    Person Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.7.1.3 Within Its Jurisdiction
    Within Its Jurisdiction Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.7.2 Equal Protection: Judging Classifications by Law
    Equal Protection: Judging Classifications by Law Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.7.3 Testing Facially Neutral Classifications Which Impact on Minorities
    Testing Facially Neutral Classifications Which Impact on Minorities Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.1 Taxation
    Taxation Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.2.1 Classification
    Classification Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.3.1 Labor Relations
    Labor Relations Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.3.2 Monopolies and Unfair Trade Practices
    Monopolies and Unfair Trade Practices Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.3.3 Administrative Discretion
    Administrative Discretion Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.3.4 Social Welfare
    Social Welfare Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.8.3.5 Punishment of Crime
    Punishment of Crime Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.1 Overview
    Overview Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.2.1 Development and Application of Separate But Equal
    Development and Application of Separate But Equal Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.2.2 Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.2.4 Implementation of School Desegregation
    Implementation of School Desegregation Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.2.7 Termination of Court Supervision
    Termination of Court Supervision Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.3 Juries
    Juries Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.4 Capital Punishment
    Capital Punishment Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.5 Housing
    Housing Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.6.7 Elections
    Elections Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.7 Affirmative Action: Remedial Use of Racial Classifications
    Affirmative Action: Remedial Use of Racial Classifications Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.1.1 Alienage and Nationality
    Alienage and Nationality Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.1.2 Sex
    Sex Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.2 Whether a Person Was Born out of Wedlock
    Whether a Person Was Born out of Wedlock Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.3 Fundamental Interests: The Political Process
    Fundamental Interests: The Political Process Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.4 The Right to Travel
    The Right to Travel Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.5 Marriage and Familial Relations
    Marriage and Familial Relations Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.6 Sexual Orientation
    Sexual Orientation Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.1 Generally
    Generally Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.2 Criminal Procedure
    Criminal Procedure Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.3 The Criminal Sentence
    The Criminal Sentence Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.4 Voting and Ballot Access
    Voting and Ballot Access Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.5 Access to Courts
    Access to Courts Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.6 Educational Opportunity
    Educational Opportunity Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.7.7 Abortion
    Abortion Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
  • Amdt14.S2.1 Apportionment of Representation
    Apportionment of Representation Fourteenth Amendment, Section 2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of . . .
  • Amdt14.S5.1.2 State Action
    State Action Fourteenth Amendment, Section 5: The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In enforcing by appropriate legislation the . . .
  • Amdt14.S5.1.3 Congressional Definition of Fourteenth Amendment Rights
    Congressional Definition of Fourteenth Amendment Rights Fourteenth Amendment, Section 5: The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. In . . .
  • Amdt15.S1.1.1.4 The White Primary
    The White Primary Fifteenth Amendment, Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or . . .
  • Amdt15.S1.1.1.5 Literacy Tests
    Literacy Tests Fifteenth Amendment, Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or . . .
  • Amdt15.S1.1.1.6 Racial Gerrymandering
    Racial Gerrymandering Fifteenth Amendment, Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, . . .
  • Amdt21.S1.1.2.1 Discrimination Against Interstate Commerce
    Discrimination Against Interstate Commerce Twenty-First Amendment, Section 1: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. In a series of decisions . . .
  • Amdt21.S1.1.2.4 Effect of Section 2 upon Other Constitutional Provisions
    Effect of Section 2 upon Other Constitutional Provisions Twenty-First Amendment, Section 1: The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. . . .
  • Amdt24.S1.1 Expansion of the Right to Vote
    Expansion of the Right to Vote Twenty-Fourth Amendment, Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for . . .
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