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Topic: Privacy
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  • Amdt1.2.13.1 Freedom of Association: Overview
    Freedom of Association: Overview First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of . . .
  • Amdt4.1 Fourth Amendment: Historical Background
    Fourth Amendment: Historical Background Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.2.1 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Overview
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.1 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Early Doctrine
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Early Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.2 Katz and the Adoption of the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test
    Katz and the Adoption of the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.3 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Current Doctrine
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Current Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches . . .
  • Amdt4.2.3.1 Open Fields Doctrine
    Open Fields Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.2.4.1.1 Seizure of Property
    Seizure of Property Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.1 The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Overview
    The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.1 Neutral and Detached Magistrate
    Neutral and Detached Magistrate Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.2 Probable Cause Requirement
    Probable Cause Requirement Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.3 Particularity Requirement
    Particularity Requirement Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.4 Knock and Announce Rule
    Knock and Announce Rule Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.5 Other Considerations When Executing a Warrant
    Other Considerations When Executing a Warrant Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not . . .
  • Amdt4.4.1 Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement: Overview
    Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not . . .
  • Amdt4.4.2 Consent Searches
    Consent Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.1 Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine
    Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.2.1 Vehicle Searches: Overview
    Vehicle Searches: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.2.2.1 Searches of Containers Within a Vehicle
    Searches of Containers Within a Vehicle Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.3 Plain View Searches
    Plain View Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.4.1.1 Terry Stop and Frisks: Doctrine and Practice
    Terry Stop and Frisks: Doctrine and Practice Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not . . .
  • Amdt4.4.4.1.2.1 Terry Stop and Frisks and Vehicles
    Terry Stop and Frisks and Vehicles Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.1 Border Searches
    Border Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.2 Drug Testing
    Drug Testing Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.3 National Security
    National Security Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.4 School Searches
    School Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.5 Searches of Prisoners, Parolees and Probationers
    Searches of Prisoners, Parolees and Probationers Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.6 Workplace Searches
    Workplace Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.5.1 Exclusionary Rule: Overview
    Exclusionary Rule: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.1 Adoption of a Federal Exclusionary Rule
    Adoption of a Federal Exclusionary Rule Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.2 Standing and the Fourth Amendment
    Standing and the Fourth Amendment Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.3 Good Faith Exception
    Good Faith Exception Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt5.1.1.1 Grand Jury Clause: Historical Background
    Grand Jury Clause: Historical Background Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in . . .
  • Amdt5.1.1.2 Grand Jury Clause: Doctrine and Practice
    Grand Jury Clause: Doctrine and Practice Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in . . .
  • Amdt5.1.2 Military Exception to the Grand Jury Clause
    Military Exception to the Grand Jury Clause Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except . . .
  • Amdt5.3.1.1 General Protections Against Self-Incrimination: Historical Background
    General Protections Against Self-Incrimination: Historical Background Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment . . .
  • Amdt5.3.1.2 General Protections Against Self-Incrimination: Doctrine and Practice
    General Protections Against Self-Incrimination: Doctrine and Practice Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment . . .
  • Amdt5.3.1.3.1 Self-Incrimination and the Concept of Immunity
    Self-Incrimination and the Concept of Immunity Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except . . .
  • Amdt5.3.2.1 Withdrawl of Government Benefits
    Withdrawl of Government Benefits Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising . . .
  • Amdt5.4.5.2.2 Rights of Family Autonomy and Raising Children
    Rights of Family Autonomy and Raising Children Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except . . .
  • Amdt5.4.5.2.4.1 Right to Privacy: Pre-Modern Doctrine
    Right to Privacy: Pre-Modern Doctrine Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases . . .
  • Amdt5.4.5.2.4.3 Private Sexual Activity
    Private Sexual Activity Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt5.4.5.2.4.4 Informational Privacy
    Informational Privacy Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the . . .
  • Amdt9.1 Ninth Amendment: Historical Background
    Ninth Amendment: Historical Background Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The Federalists . . .
  • Amdt9.2.1 Ninth Amendment: Current Doctrine
    Ninth Amendment: Current Doctrine Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The Ninth Amendment . . .
  • Amdt10.1 Tenth Amendment: Historical Background
    Tenth Amendment: Historical Background Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or . . .
  • Amdt10.2.1 Tenth Amendment: Early Doctrine
    Tenth Amendment: Early Doctrine Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the . . .
  • Amdt10.2.2 Tenth Amendment: Postbellum Case Law
    Tenth Amendment: Postbellum Case Law Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or . . .
  • Amdt10.2.3 Tenth Amendment: Post-New Deal Court
    Tenth Amendment: Post-New Deal Court Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or . . .
  • Amdt10.2.4.1 Tenth Amendment: Commandeering Prohibitions
    Tenth Amendment: Commandeering Prohibitions Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, . . .
  • Amdt10.2.4.2 Tenth Amendment: Commerce Clause
    Tenth Amendment: Commerce Clause Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.2.3.1.1.1 Gender Classifications: Doctrine from 1870s to 1960s
    Gender Classifications: Doctrine from 1870s to 1960s Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.2.3.1.1.2 Gender Classifications: Doctrine during 1970s
    Gender Classifications: Doctrine during 1970s Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.2.3.1.2.1 Gender Classifications: General Approach
    Gender Classifications: General Approach Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.2.3.1.2.2 Facially Non-Neutral Laws that Benefit Women
    Facially Non-Neutral Laws that Benefit Women Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States . . .
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