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Topic: Privacy
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  • Intro.2 Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition
    Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition The need for a comprehensive treatise on the Constitution was apparent to Congress from early in the 20th century. In 1911, the Senate Manual (a compilation . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C1.1.3.2 Congressional Employees
    Congressional Employees Article I, Section 6, Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.2 Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices
    Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of . . .
  • ArtVI.C2.1.5 Supremacy Clause Versus the Tenth Amendment
    Supremacy Clause Versus the Tenth Amendment Article VI, Clause 2: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall . . .
  • Amdt1.2.13.1 Freedom of Association: Overview
    Freedom of Association: Overview First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or . . .
  • Amdt4.1 Historical Background
    Historical Background Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.2.1 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Overview
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.1 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Early Doctrine
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Early Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.2 Katz and the Adoption of the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test
    Katz and the Adoption of the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches . . .
  • Amdt4.2.2.3 Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Current Doctrine
    Scope of the Rights Protected by the Fourth Amendment: Current Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable . . .
  • Amdt4.2.3.1 Open Fields Doctrine
    Open Fields Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.2.4.1.1 Seizure of Property
    Seizure of Property Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.1 The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Overview
    The Need for a Warrant to Conduct a Search or Seizure: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.1 Neutral and Detached Magistrate
    Neutral and Detached Magistrate Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.2 Probable Cause Requirement
    Probable Cause Requirement Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.3 Particularity Requirement
    Particularity Requirement Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.4 Knock and Announce Rule
    Knock and Announce Rule Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.3.2.2.1.5 Other Considerations When Executing a Warrant
    Other Considerations When Executing a Warrant Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall . . .
  • Amdt4.4.1 Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement: Overview
    Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall . . .
  • Amdt4.4.2 Consent Searches
    Consent Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.1 Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine
    Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.2.1 Vehicle Searches: Overview
    Vehicle Searches: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.2.2.1 Searches of Containers Within a Vehicle
    Searches of Containers Within a Vehicle Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be . . .
  • Amdt4.4.3.3 Plain View Searches
    Plain View Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.4.4.1.1 Terry Stop and Frisks: Doctrine and Practice
    Terry Stop and Frisks: Doctrine and Practice Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not . . .
  • Amdt4.4.4.1.2.1 Terry Stop and Frisks and Vehicles
    Terry Stop and Frisks and Vehicles Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.1 Border Searches
    Border Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.2 Drug Testing
    Drug Testing Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.3 National Security
    National Security Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.4 School Searches
    School Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.5 Searches of Prisoners, Parolees and Probationers
    Searches of Prisoners, Parolees and Probationers Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall . . .
  • Amdt4.4.5.1.6 Workplace Searches
    Workplace Searches Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt4.5.1 Exclusionary Rule: Overview
    Exclusionary Rule: Overview Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.1 Adoption of a Federal Exclusionary Rule
    Adoption of a Federal Exclusionary Rule Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.2 Standing and the Fourth Amendment
    Standing and the Fourth Amendment Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be . . .
  • Amdt4.5.2.3 Good Faith Exception
    Good Faith Exception Fourth Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no . . .
  • Amdt5.1 Indictment by Grand Jury
    Indictment by Grand Jury Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising . . .
  • Amdt5.3.1 Development and Scope
    Development and Scope Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt5.3.2.1 Immunity
    Immunity Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or . . .
  • Amdt5.3.2.2 Required Records Doctrine
    Required Records Doctrine Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising . . .
  • Amdt5.3.2.3 Reporting and Disclosure
    Reporting and Disclosure Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising . . .
  • Amdt9.1 Rights Retained by the People
    Rights Retained by the People Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. The Federalists . . .
  • Amdt10.1.2.3 Federal Regulations Affecting State Activities and Instrumentalities
    Federal Regulations Affecting State Activities and Instrumentalities Tenth Amendment: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.1 Generally
    Generally Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.4.17 Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process)
    Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process) Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.6.2.12 Rights of Prisoners
    Rights of Prisoners Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.1.2 Sex
    Sex Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they . . .
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