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  • Intro.1 Public Law No. 91-589, 84 Stat. 1585, 2 U.S.C. § 168
    Public Law No. 91-589, 84 Stat. 1585, 2 U.S.C. § 168 JOINT RESOLUTION Authorizing the preparation and printing of a revised edition of the Constitution of the United States of America—Analysis and . . .
  • Intro.2 Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition
    Introduction to the 2012 Centennial Edition The need for a comprehensive treatise on the Constitution was apparent to Congress from early in the 20th century. In 1911, the Senate Manual (a compilation . . .
  • Intro.4 Bill of Rights
    Bill of Rights First Through Tenth Amendments On September 12, five days before the Convention adjourned, Mason and Gerry raised the question of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution. Mason . . .
  • Intro.5 Proposed Amendments Not Ratified by the States
    Proposed Amendments Not Ratified by the States During the course of our history, in addition to the twenty-seven amendments which have been ratified by the required three-fourths of the States, six . . .
  • ArtI.S1.1 Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
    Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House . . .
  • ArtI.S1.2 Bicameralism
    Bicameralism Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. By providing . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.2 Investigations of Conduct of Executive Department
    Investigations of Conduct of Executive Department Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.3 Investigations of Members of Congress
    Investigations of Members of Congress Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.4.1 Purpose
    Purpose Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Beginning with the . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.4.3 Protection of Witnesses; Constitutional Guarantees
    Protection of Witnesses; Constitutional Guarantees Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and . . .
  • ArtI.S1.5.5 Sanctions of the Investigatory Power: Contempt
    Sanctions of the Investigatory Power: Contempt Article I, Section 1: All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House . . .
  • ArtI.S2.C1.1 Congressional Districting
    Congressional Districting Article I, Section 2, Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in . . .
  • ArtI.S2.C2.1.1 When the Qualifications Must Be Possessed
    When the Qualifications Must Be Possessed Article I, Section 2, Clause 2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a . . .
  • ArtI.S2.C2.1.2.1 Congressional Additions
    Congressional Additions Article I, Section 2, Clause 2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United . . .
  • ArtI.S2.C2.1.2.2 State Additions
    State Additions Article I, Section 2, Clause 2: No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, . . .
  • ArtI.S3.C1.1 In General
    In General Article I, Section 3, Clause 1: The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall . . .
  • ArtI.S3.C2.1 See Article I, Section 3, Clause 1
    See Article I, Section 3, Clause 1 Article I, Section 3, Clause 2: Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three . . .
  • ArtI.S3.C4.1 See Article I, Section 3, Clause 3
    See Article I, Section 3, Clause 3 Article I, Section 3, Clause 4: The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided. See . . .
  • ArtI.S3.C5.1 See Article I, Section 3, Clause 3
    See Article I, Section 3, Clause 3 Article I, Section 3, Clause 5: The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall . . .
  • ArtI.S4.C1.2 Regulation by the State Legislature
    Regulation by the State Legislature Article I, Section 4, Clause 1: The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the . . .
  • ArtI.S4.C2.1 In General
    In General Article I, Section 4, Clause 2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C1.1.1 Power to Judge Elections
    Power to Judge Elections Article I, Section 5, Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C1.1.2 A Quorum to Do Business
    A Quorum to Do Business Article I, Section 5, Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C1.1.3 Rules of Proceedings
    Rules of Proceedings Article I, Section 5, Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C1.1.4 Powers of the Houses Over Members
    Powers of the Houses Over Members Article I, Section 5, Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C1.1.5 Duty To Keep a Journal
    Duty To Keep a Journal Article I, Section 5, Clause 1: Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C2.1 See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1
    See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1 Article I, Section 5, Clause 2: Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C3.1 See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1
    See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1 Article I, Section 5, Clause 3: Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their . . .
  • ArtI.S5.C4.1 See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1
    See Article I, Section 5, Clause 1 Article I, Section 5, Clause 4: Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C1.1.1 Congressional Pay
    Congressional Pay Article I, Section 6, Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C1.1.2 Privilege from Arrest
    Privilege from Arrest Article I, Section 6, Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C1.1.3.1 Members
    Members Article I, Section 6, Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C1.1.3.2 Congressional Employees
    Congressional Employees Article I, Section 6, Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the . . .
  • ArtI.S6.C2.1.1 Appointment to Executive Office
    Appointment to Executive Office Article I, Section 6, Clause 2: No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of . . .
  • ArtI.S7.C1.1.1 Revenue Bills
    Revenue Bills Article I, Section 7, Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. . . .
  • ArtI.S7.C1.1.3 The Veto Power
    The Veto Power Article I, Section 7, Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. . . .
  • ArtI.S7.C1.1.4 Presentation of Resolutions
    Presentation of Resolutions Article I, Section 7, Clause 1: All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C3.1.10.1 Foreign Commerce: Jefferson's Embargo
    Foreign Commerce: Jeffersons Embargo Article I, Section 8, Clause 3: The Congress shall have Power . . . To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C7.1.2 Power to Protect the Mails
    Power to Protect the Mails Article I, Section 8, Clause 7: The Congress shall have Power . . . To establish Post Offices and post Roads; . . . The postal powers of Congress embrace all measures . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C11.1.2 Declaration of War
    Declaration of War Article I, Section 8, Clause 11: The Congress shall have Power . . . To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; . . . . .
  • ArtI.S8.C17.1 Seat of the Government
    Seat of the Government Article I, Section 8, Clause 17: The Congress shall have Power . . . To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles . . .
  • ArtII.S1.C1.1.1 Creation of the Presidency
    Creation of the Presidency Article II, Section 1, Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, . . .
  • ArtII.S1.C1.1.2 Executive Power: Theory of the Presidential Office
    Executive Power: Theory of the Presidential Office Article II, Section 1, Clause 1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during . . .
  • ArtII.S1.C2.1 Electoral College
    Electoral College Article II, Section 1, Clause 2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C1.1.3 The Cold War and After: Presidential Power to Use Troops Overseas Without Congressional Authorization
    The Cold War and After: Presidential Power to Use Troops Overseas Without Congressional Authorization Article II, Section 2, Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C1.1.4 The President as Commander of the Armed Forces
    The President as Commander of the Armed Forces Article II, Section 2, Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C1.2.1 The Cabinet
    The Cabinet Article II, Section 2, Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.1.1 President and Senate
    President and Senate Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.1.2 Treaties as Law of the Land
    Treaties as Law of the Land Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.1.4 Interpretation and Termination of Treaties as International Compacts
    Interpretation and Termination of Treaties as International Compacts Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.2 International Agreements Without Senate Approval
    International Agreements Without Senate Approval Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.1 Office
    Office Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.2 Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices
    Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.3.1 Nomination
    Nomination Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.3.2 Senate Approval
    Senate Approval Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.3.3 When Senate Consent Is Complete
    When Senate Consent Is Complete Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.4.1 The Myers Case
    The Myers Case Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.4.5 The Removal Power Rationalized
    The Removal Power Rationalized Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.4.6 Inferior Officers
    Inferior Officers Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C2.3.5 The Presidential Aegis: Demands for Papers
    The Presidential Aegis: Demands for Papers Article II, Section 2, Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators . . .
  • ArtII.S2.C3.1 Recess Appointments
    Recess Appointments Article II, Section 2, Clause 3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire . . .
  • ArtII.S3.1 Legislative Role of the President
    Legislative Role of the President Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he . . .
  • ArtII.S3.2.2 The Presidential Monopoly
    The Presidential Monopoly Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall . . .
  • ArtII.S3.2.3 The Power of Recognition
    The Power of Recognition Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall . . .
  • ArtII.S3.3.2 Impoundment of Appropriated Funds
    Impoundment of Appropriated Funds Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he . . .
  • ArtII.S3.3.3 Power and Duty of the President in Relation to Subordinate Executive Officers
    Power and Duty of the President in Relation to Subordinate Executive Officers Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and . . .
  • ArtII.S3.6 Presidential Immunity from Judicial Direction
    Presidential Immunity from Judicial Direction Article II, Section 3: He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such . . .
  • ArtII.S4.1.1 Impeachment and Removal from Office: Overview
    Impeachment and Removal from Office: Overview Article II, Section 4: The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and . . .
  • ArtII.S4.1.2.1 Offices Eligible for Impeachment
    Offices Eligible for Impeachment Article II, Section 4: The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, . . .
  • ArtIII.S1.1.1 Organization of Courts, Tenure, and Compensation of Judges: Overview
    Organization of Courts, Tenure, and Compensation of Judges: Overview Article III, Section 1: The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.1 Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies
    Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of . . .
  • ArtIII.S2.C1.4.8 Controversies Between Citizens of the Same State Claiming Land Under Grants of Different States
    Controversies Between Citizens of the Same State Claiming Land Under Grants of Different States Article III, Section 2, Clause 1: The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, . . .
  • 73. Article V
    ArtV.1.1 Scope of the Amending Power
    Scope of the Amending Power Article V: The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the . . .
  • 74. Article V
    ArtV.1.2 Proposing a Constitutional Amendment
    Proposing a Constitutional Amendment Article V: The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the . . .
  • 75. Article V
    ArtV.1.3 Judicial Review Under Article V
    Judicial Review Under Article V Article V: The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the . . .
  • Amdt1.1.1 An Overview
    An Overview First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the . . .
  • Amdt1.2.1 Adoption and the Common Law Background
    Adoption and the Common Law Background First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of . . .
  • Amdt1.2.10 Particular Governmental Regulations that Restrict Expression
    Particular Governmental Regulations that Restrict Expression First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging . . .
  • Amdt1.2.14 Speech Plus – The Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating
    Speech Plus – The Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise . . .
  • Amdt5.2.1 Development and Scope
    Development and Scope Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in . . .
  • Amdt6.1.1 Coverage
    Coverage Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been . . .
  • Amdt6.4 Place of Trial: Jury of the Vicinage
    Place of Trial: Jury of the Vicinage Sixth Amendment: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.9.7 Affirmative Action: Remedial Use of Racial Classifications
    Affirmative Action: Remedial Use of Racial Classifications Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens . . .
  • Amdt14.S1.10.3 Fundamental Interests: The Political Process
    Fundamental Interests: The Political Process Fourteenth Amendment, Section 1: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United . . .
  • Amdt14.S2.1 Apportionment of Representation
    Apportionment of Representation Fourteenth Amendment, Section 2: Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of . . .
  • Amdt20.S1.1 Purpose of the Amendment
    Purpose of the Amendment Twentieth Amendment, Section 1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at . . .
  • Amdt25.S1.1 Presidential Succession
    Presidential Succession Twenty-Fifth Amendment, Section 1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. The Twenty- . . .
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